This GCHQ report dated 3 February 2011 and written by a seconded NSA staff member, alludes to the agencies’ capabilities against 13 models of firewalls produced by Juniper Networks, Inc: see the Intercept article NSA Helped British Spies Find Security Holes In Juniper Firewalls, 23 December 2015.
This 49-page March 2009 NSA presentation explains how to conduct searches within XKeyScore: see the Intercept article XKEYSCORE: NSA’s Google for the World’s Private Communications, 1 July 2015.
This undated presentation from NSA’s UK-based Menwith Hill station describes the various uses of open source intelligence (OSINT) in computer network operations, including the monitoring of hacker forums and spotting opportunities for so-called “Fourth Party Collection”: see the Intercept article XKEYSCORE: NSA’s Google for the World’s Private Communications, 1 July 2015.
This GCHQ application for warrant renewal from June 2008 shows that the agency has been engaged in the reverse engineering of commercial antivirus software for the purposes of facilitating its hacking operations: see the Intercept article Popular Security Software Came Under Relentless NSA and GCHQ Attacks, 22 June 2015.
This June 2012 NSA presentation describes methods to exfiltrate data, even from networks that are apparently offline: see the Der Spiegel article The Digital Arms Race: NSA Preps America for Future Battle, 17 January 2015.
This undated presentation from NSA’s Network Analysis Center describes agency techniques for overcoming Virtual Private Networks (VPNs): see the Der Spiegel story Prying Eyes: Inside the NSA’s War on Internet Security, 28 December 2014.
This GCHQ presentation from 2011 provides the background to the agency’s hacking attack on Belgacom: see the Intercept article Operation Socialist: The Inside Story of How British Spies Hacked Belgium’s Largest Telco, 13 December 2014.
Read to the Internet Ungovernance Forum in Istanbul, 5 September 2014
Thank you for inviting me to speak to you today. I apologize for not being able to speak to you by video conference. Last-minute technical problems have made that method of communication impossible.
I’d like to take this opportunity, before an audience of activists, academics and journalists in Istanbul to discuss the relationship between censorship and surveillance, which are in many ways two sides of the same coin. The Turkish people are subject to both of these technically assisted forms of state manipulation, although the former has received far more attention than the latter.
When governments censor their citizens’ access the Internet, they not only trample on basic human rights, but they also make it much easier for foreign governments to gain access to those domestic communications. For censorship equipment to be able to function, domestic traffic must flow through it. This equipment is a natural target for nation-state intelligence agencies. If they can hack into and compromise the censorship equipment, they get access to all of the communications that flow through it. It only takes one security flaw or an intentionally placed backdoor in a censorship device to transform it from a tool of domestic oppression to a trojan horse for foreign government surveillance.
In the past few years, several governments have started to openly question their reliance on foreign-made communications technology, whether 4G telephone network equipment made by Huawei, or Internet switches made by Cisco. The national security arguments against foreign-made networking technology apply equally to foreign-made censorship technology. When governments install censorship equipment at the core of their national communications networks, how can they be sure that they’re not also inviting in a foreign intelligence service?
In an ideal world, governments would respect the free speech rights of their citizens enough to not filter their Internet communications. Sadly, we do not yet live in that world. Perhaps in time, governments will realize that the serious cybersecurity and foreign-surveillance threats posed by censorship equipment outweigh whatever supposed benefits of national stability and control that they bring.
To all of those present who struggled in Gezi Park, to those who struggle at the Ungovernance Forum today, thank you for your support and your solidarity. You have my support and solidarity.